PCTRAN is the most successful desktop simulator for all types of light water nuclear reactors. It is specifically designed for many different plant types, including PWR, BWR, advanced AREVA EPR, Westinghouse AP1000, GE ABWR, and ESBWR. PCTRAN's simulation scope extends to severe accidents and dose dispersion. Since its first introduction in 1985 by Micro-Simulation Technology, PCTRAN has been selected by the IAEA as the training platform for its annual Advanced Reactor Simulation workshop. Plant-specific models have been installed at nuclear power plants and institutions all over the world for practical application in training, analysis, probabilistic safety assessment, and emergency exercises.
The Russian VVER-1200 (NPP-2006 or AES-91) is the version currently offered for export. Right now there are active projects in China, India, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Jordan and Egypt It is an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features. The PSAR (Preliminary Safety Analysis Safety Report) of model 392M under construction at the Novovoronezh NPP-II is used for developing and benchmark of the PCTRAN simulator.
NuScale power module consists of a small 160 MWt reactor core housed with other primary system components in an integral reactor pressure vessel and surrounded by a steel containment vessel, which is immersed in a large pool of water. Above the core is a central hot riser tube, a helical coil steam generator surrounding the hot riser tube, and a pressurizer. The helical coil steam generator consists of two independent sets of tube bundles with separate feedwater inlet and steam outlet lines. A set of pressurizer heaters and sprays is located in the upper head of the vessel to provide pressure control.
PCTRAN simulator follows NuScale design closely by setting the module in the middle. The chemical and volume control system (CVCC), decay heat removal system (DHS), reactor protection system (RPS) and containment control panels are at left. The pressurizer, turbine and steam generators, and reactor core control are at right hand side.
The purpose of this PC-based simulator is not just for the control room operator training, but also for prospective clients in their evaluation of the technology. They learn how the passive-cooled inherent safe SMR works. In a quantitative and dynamic hand-on practice, the reactor performs well in startup, load control, electricity generation and desalination water production. They may also practice any combination of accident scenarios including feed and steam line breaks, SG tube leak, up to the most challenging Fukushima type station blackout up to 30 days – without any possibility of damage to the core or dose release.
SMART is a 330 MWt pressurized water reactor with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. The unit designed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for electricity generation (up to 110 MWe) as well as thermal applications such as seawater desalination.
The PC-based simulator PCTRAN for SMART was developed using experience gained on work for the Korean APR1400 and OPR1000. Both are licensed to Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Korea Electric Power Co (KEPCO), Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and five universities in Korea. SMART has its unique in-vessel pressurizer, helical coil once-through-steam generators, and canned circulation pumps. It is equipped with both active and passive heat removal systems. In the event of a severe accident resulting hydrogen in the containment, there are passive auto-catalytic recombiners to reduce its concentration. They are all closely simulated for training and education.
The reactor could use all its steam for electricity generation for a total of 110 MWe, or extract the steam at its low-pressure turbine to a MED-TVC plant for desalination. The electricity output will be reduced to 90 MWe with 40,000 tons of fresh water production per day. Combined the plant could support a 100,000 population city’s consumption.
The multiple effect distillation (MED) with thermal vapor compressor (TVC) has a gain output ratio (GOR) about 13 for the distilled water to the motive reactor steam.
A complete line of normal and accidental cases have been conducted. It includes normal startup, power escalation, shutdown and cool-down using normal HCSG and shutdown cooling system, loss of coolant accidents and station blackout (SBO) Fukushima type accident. Despite core damage and hydrogen generation is virtually impossible to occur, the simulator is capable to perform an intentional loss of passive RHR cooling event with hydrogen in the containment. Then start of the PAR suppresses the content to non-combustible level.
The EPR includes a number of unique features to prevent or mitigate the effects of severe accidents:
- In-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST),
- Severe accident heat removal system (SAHRS).
- Combustible gas control system (CGCS),
- Core-melt stabilization system
PCTRAN/EPR as a PC-based trainer, has all above systems and their respective functions modeled in dynamic simulation. As a result, students learn severe accidents and EPR’s unique system for mitigation.
Post-Fukushima "Stress Test" and FLEX methodology extend defense-in-depth to beyond the design-basis and external events. PCTRAN is the only simulator that provides fast-time training and exercise. Additional portable power suppy, water souce, alternate cooling means, etc. can be easily incorporated. Panel display mimics the actual Plant Comuter System (PCS) for enhanced training .
Recent (2014) Licensees
Korea Hydro & Nuclear Corporation (KHNP) Center of Research Institute (CRI) has acquired PCTRAN KSNP and APR1400 severe accident models via FNC, Inc.
Chattanooga State Technical Community College has acquired RadPuff for radiological dispersion projection.
Tohoku University of Japan has acquired PCTRA/BWR5 severe accident model vis CSA of Japan for its training and education.
Kyushu University of Japan has acquired PCTRA/PWR 4-loop severe accident model vis CSA of Japan for its training and education.
King Abdu LaZiz University of Saudi Areabia has acquired generic PWR model for training and education for the kingdom's plan of constructing up to 16 power plants.