Projects Completed (year end 2008)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory has acquired a PCTRAN new reactor model
MST has delivered a new reactor PCTRAN model to the national lab's Advanced Reactor Systems and Safety Group. ARSS provides a wide range of support for analyzing, modeling, and controlling reactor power systems. The lab is commissioned by the US NRC to review all vendors' new reactor design submissions. With their expertise and resources, PCTRAN will evolve into a major analytical and simulation tool in the development of advanced reactor systems.
The Mexican Institute of National Nuclear Investigation has selected PCTRAN for its LaGuna Verde (GE BWR5) severe accident analysis. The package delivered also contains G3 models of AP1000, EPR, ESBWR, ABWR, and TRIGA models
The Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority has selected PCTRAN for its Chasma (PWR 2-loop 300 MW) severe accident analysis. The package also contains G3 models of PWR 3-loop, EPR, AP1000 and off-site dispersion projection.
In 2006, PCTRAN successfully added Calvert Cliffs (Constellation), FitzPatrick (Entergy Northeast), Beaver Valley and Limerick (for Pennsylvania DEP), and Tsuruga (JAPC in Japan) to its client list. A Gaussian plume and puff dispersion model was successfully integrated for the projection of off-site dose. In addition, the NRC approved Constellation's submittal of Ginna's power upgrade using PCTRAN in PSA. The following is a brief outline of completed projects:
Loss of RHR during Cold Shutdown Mid-loop Conditions for Turkey Point
Plant-specific models of PCTRAN for the Saint Lucie and Turkey Point plants have been used for over 20 years at FP&L. In 2006, the model was upgraded to analyze loss of RHR during cold shutdown mid-loop conditions. Boil-off to core uncovery time was studied for various combinations of equipment availability and operator actions. A newfast replay feature can replace dull transient plots with lively visual presentations.
PCTRAN-PWR used as course material in IAEA's Workshop
The workshop on Advanced Reactor Simulation in Bucharest, Romania, July 3-7, 2006 was the ninth time that the UN agency conducted its annual training workshop for member states. The workshop for 2007 was held at the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy in October.
Taiwan Power Company
TPC integrated a puff model with variable weather conditions into its PCTRAN model to evaluate the total committed dose equivalent (TEDE) rate and integrated dose inside the emergency planning zone (5 km radius) from local atmospheric dispersion. The model assumes a quasi-steady state release of radioactive materials. Different accident scenarios determine the consequences of release. Atmospheric conditions, such as Pasquill conditions, wind speed, and wind direction, are the user inputs. A colored display around the emergency planning zone shows dose rate distributions.
Preparation of Calvert Cliffs model for Constellation Energy
A plant-specific model of the C-E PWR plant Calvert Cliffs was completed for the Risk Engineering Department. It is used for PRA event tree consequence studies. Details of the PWR plant's reactor protection system (RPS) and Emergecy Feature Actuation System (EFAS) were modeled and tested successfully. The tool met Regulatory Guide 1.174 for providing support in the risk-based Reactor Oversight Process.
Limerick and Beaver Valley Plant Models to State of Pennsylvania
The State Department of Environmental Protection Radiation Protection Bureau selected two out of five nuclear plants in its Commonwealth to receive their own computerized scenario generators, as a first step towards equipping all of their nuclear plants with this software. Acquisition of models for the remaining Peach Bottom, Susquehanna, and TMI plant models are in planning
Severe Accident Simulator for Tsuruga 1 of JAPC
The largest nuclear power generation company in Japan has installed the PCTRAN simulator for its GE BWR-2 plant, as part of its severe accident management (SAM) program. The model allows core melt, hydrogen generation, containment failure, and corium-concrete-interaction. Management guidelines such as flooding, vent, and combustion gas control can then be tested in analysis or exercise. Benchmark against MAAP and SAFER codes were successful.
Spent fuel pool accident simulators for Entergy Northeast
After successful development of the Indian Point (PWR) SFP simulator, the first BWR SFP simulator for FitzPatrick was completed. Given that the SFP of Mark 1 is high above ground, a loss of coolant event either by mechanical failure or sabotage could be catastrophic. The simulator provides time estimates for potential zirconium fire and alternate mitigation means.
Ginna's Extended Power Upgrade
PCTRAN was used for justifying the success criteria determination in the event trees of the plant's PSA for a power upgrade from 1520 MWt to 1775 MWt. The core degradation frequency (CDF) must not increase significantly for the power upgrade to be safely allowed. The analysis was reviewed and endorsed by Westinghouse. NRC has since reviewed the submittal and approved the methodology and results.
US Naval Academy use of PCTRAN in its curriculum
The academy acquired both a generic PWR power plant and an experimental pool reactor model for its midshipman's class on nuclear technology. Neutron multiplication, criticality, moderator and poison feedback, and power maneuvering can be demonstrated in a live interface. These models are used in classroom lectures and computer laboratories for both normal and transient nuclear operations.
Florida Power and Light Company Saint Lucie and Turkey Point Plants
Plant-specific models of PCTRAN-Windows for the C-E Saint Lucie and Westinghouse 3-loop Turkey Point plants were completed. Cases of small break LOCA, stuck open PORV, and station blackout were analyzed on the consideration of core exposure timing (Division I of PRA). The Westinghouse Peer's Review Group for PRA success criteria determination reviewed the report.
NEAT/JNC of Japan (Now Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization)
In February of 2003, a license agreement was reached by the introduction of CSA of Japan, Co, Ltd to license the code to the Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Training seminars were conducted in March of 2003 at the two NEAT facilities in Tokai Village and Tsuruga city. PCTRAN PWR and BWR are used to support emergency planning for all 55 nuclear units in Japan. In 2006, the code was upgraded to include preset freeze and replay capabilities. Another upgrade to include an off-site dose assessment feature is under consideration.
KKG Goesgen in Switzerland Spent Fuel Pool
A KKG Goesgen (KWU 3-loop 900 Mwe PWR) spent fuel pool simulator was developed for the Swiss regulatory agency HSK. It has the capability of analyzing a “total destruction” with complete loss of cooling and coolant to the pool and making estimates of dose release to the environment.
Omaha Public Power District Fort Calhoun
A plant-specific model of PCTRAN-Windows for the C-E designed Fort Calhoun Plant was prepared in 2001. The model is site-licensed for application in emergency preparedness, nuclear analysis, PRA, and training (including severe accident management guidelines). In 2002, it was expanded into core-melt and containment failure for severe accident management guidelines (SAMG). The model can handle hydrogen generation and burn following core exposure. In 2007, OPPD decided to upgrade again to expand to off-site dose assessment.
Atomic Energy Council of Taiwan
A contract work was awarded by the Taiwanese government agency to prepare the Emergency Action Level (EAL) matrix according to the Nulear Energy Institute (NEI) guideline NESP007. Accident scenarios generated by PCTRAN-Windows will be used in exercises with the symptom-oriented EAL matrix to determine the EAL classification.
Nuclear Power Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan
MST won a contract to provide eight PCTRAN model types for analyzing all 55 light water reactor power plants in Japan. The plants are categorized into eight groups: Westinghouse/MHI PWR of 2, 3, and 4 loops with dry containment and 4-loop PWR with ice condenser containment, GE/Toshiba/Hitachi BWR3 and 4 with Mark I containment, BWR5 with Mark II containment, and ABWR. The software will be used for analyzing thousands of event tree cases leading to core failure. It will also be used for generating source terms for dose release.
NPP Chinshan of Taiwan Power Company (GE BWR-4 Mark-I 600 MWx2) for Windows
NPP Kuosheng of Taiwan Power Company (GE BWR-6 Mark-III 2 x 900 MW) for Windows
In addition to NSSS and containment simulation, the source term and release pathways will be simulated and stored in a network database. That database will be connected to dose dispersion software for off-site dose projection.
Guangdong NPP in Daya Bay, China (Framatome 3-loop 900 Mwe)
MST provided a plant-specific PCTRAN Windows model to the Hong Kong government. A long-term maintenance and consultation contract has been awarded to provide assistance in emergency exercise and planning of radiological events.
NPP KKL Leibstadt (BWR-6 Mark III 1050 Mwe) for Windows
By arrangement of Colenco Power Service, Ltd., a partner and distributor of MST in Switzerland, PC-based simulation software in Windows was prepared for the Swiss regulatory agency HSK. Training lessons and installation was conducted in Switzerland in November 1999.
KWU-designed 3-loop PWR plant KKG (Goesgen)
The HSK project in DOS was updated to Windows in June 2000. The KWU plant has turbine run-back capability in the event of one recirculation pump trip or load rejection. Verification against previous analyses using RELAP5 resulted in satisfactory agreement.
Westinghouse 2-loop PWR plant KKB (Beznau)
The Windows version of PCTRAN was delivered to HSK in November 2000. Verification against previous analyses resulted in satisfactory agreement.
Lungmen Project ( 2 x 1300 MWe GE ABWR) in Taiwan
Taiwan Power Company granted a contract in the fall of 1997 to construct a Windows-based simulation system for the Fourth Nuclear Project in Lungmen. The system will be plant-specific for the ABWR under construction with internal recirculation pumps and advanced safety systems. It will use a Windows-based graphic user interface (GUI) with pull-down menus and mouse control.
NPP TVO-I/II Severe Accident Simulator for Windows
A contract was awarded to upgrade the severe accident simulator to Windows. It was delivered in March 2000.
DOS Versions prior to 1998
High Temperature Gas-Cooled Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan
By arrangement of the IEAJ, MST's partner and distributor in Japan, a PC-based simulator for the 30 MW test reactor was prepared and delivered to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in March 1998. The experimental reactor is a graphite-modulated and helium-cooled device capable of raising the gas temperature up to 950C. The operating and transient data predicted by PCTRAN-HTTR are in good agreement with JAERI's own analysis. The user-friendly software may be used for training and public demonstration on advanced nuclear technology.
NPP Goesgen (KKG) and Muehleberg (KKM) in Switzerland
Through the arrangement of Colenco Power Consulting, MST's partner and distributor in Europe, MST provided the Swiss government regulatory agency HSK the plant-specific models of the KWU-designed 3-loop PWR plant KKG in 1996 and the GE BWR in Muehleberg in 1998 for analytical applications. The KKM DOS model was completed in 1998 and the contract was extended to further develop a Windows version.
International Atomic Energy Agency
A contract was granted by IAEA starting in 1996 to prepare Advanced Reactor Simulation training software and material for all of its member states. The software introduces advanced reactor designs and demonstrates their normal and transient behavior. The reactor types cover advanced PWR, BWR, VVER, AP600, and PHWR. So far, five training workshops have been conducted, in Egypt, Austria, Saudi Arabia, Italy, and Korea.
Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Finland
MST provided a plant-specific severe accident simulator for TVO I/II (ABB BWR). The model has the capacity to simulate core melt, vessel and containment failure, radiological release source terms, and off-site doses. It is used for training and severe accident management beyond design-basis events including core failure, containment flooding, vent filtration, etc. A 3-year maintenance extension is in effect.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Japan
In 1995, MST provided the generic PCTRAN/U simulation code and licensed the source code to MHI. MHI is in the process of developing an Operator Training Aid system in which PCTRAN's man-machine interface (using pull-down menu and icons) will be adopted. A royalty will be paid back to MST if MHI is successful in completing and marketing that product.
Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute
In 1995, MST developed a PC-based simulator for the JAERI Passive Safety Reactor (JPSR), an advanced PWR design with once-through steam generators and passive ECCS. In 1998, MST delivered the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR) simulator for the 30 MW helium gas reactor in Oraii. It was tested to perform consistently with JAERI's design codes.
Atomic Energy Commission of Indonesia
In 1994, MST provided the generic PCTRAN/U code to AECI for training its technical staff and for the evaluation of nuclear safety on various types of PWR designs. Indonesia is in the process of selecting its first NPP type.
TUEV Rheinland in Germany
MST prepared the plant-specific models for Wuergassen (BWR) and Muelheim-Kaerlich (ABB OTSG PWR).
NPP Brunsbuettel (KKB) in Germany
Provided the simulation code for the GE BWR Wuergassen.
NPP Stade (KKS) in Germany - Provided the generic PWR simulation code.
NPP Paks in Hungary - Provided the Soviet-designed VVER-440/213 plant with a simulation code.
NPP Krsko PWR 2-loop designed by Westinghouse in Former Yugoslavia (now Slovenia)
Government: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (Reactor Systems Branch), Swiss Nuclear Regulatory Agency (HSK), New Jersey Department of Environemtn Protection Nuclear Safety Bureau, Training simulators for Oyster Creek, Salem and Hope Creek.
NPPs in US: Point Beach, Turkey Point, St. Lucie, Salem, Hope Creek, Duane Arnold, TMI-1, Oyster Creek, Grand Gulf, River Bend, Peach Bottom, Limerick, etc. in U.S.
NPPs overseas: Chinshan, Kuosheng and Maashan in Taiwan, Krsko in Yugoslavia, Vadellos 2 in Spain, Koeberg in South Africa, Laguna Verdi in Mexico, Borsele (EPZ) in Holland
Industry: IBM, Earth Tech (Concord, MA), Enercon Services (Tulsa, Ok), M&K Associates (Boulder, Co), Central Research in Electric Power Institute (CREPI in Japan)